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Пособие составлено на кафедре английского языка заочного отделения. Составитель: Соловьёва М. В - страница 6


Cecilia – a sentimental novel of 1782 by Fanny Burney (1752 – 1840); Lord Orville is the hero of her ^ Evelina (1778)

Cantab – a student at Cambridge

Supporters of the Crawley arms – the heraldic beasts which hold up the family coat-of-arms

Distraining – the seizing of land or animals in order to make a tenant pay any debts

Presentation of the living – as a landowner, Pitt had the right to recommend to whom the post at the church should go; while the Bute Crawleys expect it to stay in the family, Sir Pitt has in fact sold his right

Udolpho – the castle of Udolpho features in Anne Radcliffe’s Gothic novel ^ The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794)

Crizelda – the heroine of the final tale of Boccaccio’s The Decameron, notable for her constant patience

Rundell and Bridge’s – at this time, the most prestigious jewellers in London

Cap and bells – the headdress worn by a fool or jester

Shovel-hat – a broad-brimmed hat typically worn by a clergyman

Bajocchi – Italian coins

Gredin … monstre – Rascal … monster (French)

^ Infвmes – infamous or notorious (French)

Silenus – an elderly drunken satyr – part-man, part-goat and highly sexual – who was an attendant to Bacchus the Roman god of wine

Jade – a bad-tempered or nagging woman

Give the pas – give way to, or give precedence to

Strasburg pie – paste made of goose liver, a detail sued by Thackeray to make fun of Pitt’s diplomatic skills

^ Mr Wilberforce – William Wilberforce (1759 – 1833), a politician and evangelical leader, most notable as the champion of the movement for the abolition of slavery

Independent meeting-house – the place of worship of the local group of dissenters or Nonconformist Christians who had left the Anglican Church

^ The second seat – Queen’s Crawley has two parliamentary seats, but Sir Pitt has sold the second to a wealthy ‘mixed race’ MP, and Pitt does not care how he votes on the slavery question

Alieni appetens, sui profusus – greedy for the property of other people, but wasteful with one’s own (Latin)

^ Blood-red hand – Baronets were entitled to wear this sign on the escutcheon of their coat-of-arms; it related to the original creation of the rank of baronet to raise money for the war in Ulster

Debrett – Debrett’s Peerage of England, which lists all the aristocracy

Jointure – The late Lady Crawley had money of her own and had left some to her son Pitt. As executor, Sir Pitt would have charge of this, but as yet he has not found it convenient to hand over the money to his son.

Pettifogging – constantly going to law over minor issues

Lozenge – a diamond-shaped shield bearing a coat-of-arms

^ Dr Smollett … de Voltaire – Although Tobias George Smollett (1721 – 71) wrote a Hisotyr of England (1757), he is more well known for his novels such as Humphrey Clinker (1771), Fielding’s Tom Jones (1749) and anything by Clause de Crйbillon, such as Le Sopha (1742), would also be considered unsuitable for the girls by Pitt, as would the works of David Hume (1711-76) and Voltaire (1694 – 1778), who were regarded as dangerous radicals and atheists

^ Camilla – a warrior Princess of the Volsican tribe in Virgil’s Aeneid (Book XI), she was so fast and light that she could run over the sea without wetting her feet.

D’Hozier’s dictionary – a listing of French nobility by Louis-Pierre D’Hozier

^ Count de Trictrac, Abbй du Cornet – Becky is playing with Pitt’s real ignorance of French: tric-trac is backgammon and a cornet is the dice-shaker

Dragoon – Rawdon, a soldier in the cavalry, has a more prestigious regiment than Dobbin and Osborne

Pretermit – to let something pass, to leave it undone

^ Flat – simpleton

Bel esprit – an apt and clever wit (French)

St Just … Rousseau … Mr Fox – Louise Antoine de St Just (1767-94) was a French revolutionary during the ‘Terror’, who also wrote salacious poetry; Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-78), a radical French philosopher and educationalist; and Charles James Fox (1749 – 1806), a leading politician with liberal tendencies who favoured increasing the franchise and greater civil liberties

^ Flung a main with him – played dice or gambled

She bought him his commission in the Life Guards Green – There were several high-ranking household regiments that Rawdon was eligible to enter as the son of a baronet, although Lady Crawley buys him an officer’s post. Of the two Life Guards, one was known as the ‘Blues’, to which Thackeray is presumably alluding

^ Rat-hunting … four-in-hand – Rawdon’s ‘sports’ were trapping rats with dogs, boxing at the ‘fives’ court’, and driving four-horse carriages

Rally round the Prince Regent – although a combat regiment the ‘Greens’ left the fighting to lesser forces in order to guard the Prince Regent

^ Coursing match – greyhounds in pursuit of rabbits

Pepper-and-salt frock – a frock-coat made of mixed black and white fibres

Reversionary spoil – money or property exchanges which, although granted to one party, may revert to another on the occasion of a death

^ The use of the globes – a governess was expected to know geography and astronomy, which involved using globes of the earth and the heavens

Spud – a narrow-bladed spade for cutting roots and digging up weeds

Mrs Glauber – Becky is being sarcastic, since the name translates as Mrs Laxative! Glauber’s Salts, a laxative, had been concocted by a German chemist, Johannes Rudolph Clauber (1603-88). A Dr von Glauber appears later in the Pumpernickel episode

Pelisses – loose overgarments worn out of doors to protect the best clothes

^ Put – a duffer, blockhead, idiot

Snob – Rawdon uses this term in its earlier sense of someone who is vulgar and not genteel and does not strive to be. Thackeray generally popularises it in the modern sense of someone who is pretentious with regard to money, possessions, rank and social position

Chaw-bacon – a bacon-chewing country bumpkin

^ Des frвiches toilettes – new outfits (French)

Blackamoors – an archaic term derives from ‘black moors’, signifying anyone with dark skin, but here used as a term of abuse

Woolwich – home of the Royal Military Academy which Frank is presumably attending

^ The reversion of the living – not knowing that Sir Pitt has already sold the right to become the next incumbent of Crawley Church, the Crawleys think of it as the rightful inheritance for Jim

The Cocoa Tree – a fashionable gambling club in London’s St James’s Street

^ Cross the fight – to fix or rig a boxing match

Quarter-sessions – a court of limited criminal and civil jurisdiction, usually held four times a year

Trouvaille – a perfect find (French)

Criblй de dettes – consumed with debt (French)

Wattier’s – an infamous gaming house in London

Fade – ordinary, insipid

Mangnall’s Questions – Richmal Mangnall (1769 – 1820) published her school text ^ Historical and Miscellaneous Questions for the Use of Young People in 1800. It was most widely used in girls’ schools

Herz manner – Henry Herz (1806 – 1888) taught piano at the Paris Conservatoire and was a writer and composer whose books on piano playing were very popular

^ Petit minois chiffonnй – pretty, irregular little face (French)

The Foundling – this hospital was in Bloomsbury close to where the Osbornes and Sedleys lived. Its chapel was the scene of many performances and services to raise money for the hospital’s work of caring for destitute children

Cotillon – a French formation dance similar to a quadrille

^ Carlton House – the London home of the Prince Regent, in Pall Mall

The Battle of Vittoria … Moscow … Leipzig – Wellington defeated the French in Spain at Vittoria in 1813; the Russians burned Moscow rather than let Napoleon take it; and Napoleon was defeated at Leipzig in Germany in 1813

^ Brienne … Montmirail - these were late victories for Napoleon in 1814, on sites to the east of Paris, before he was finally defeated in June 1815

Te Deum – a service of thanksgiving after a victory or other notable event, one of which was held at St Paul’s after Napoleon’s abdication

^ Mansion House – the official residence oft he Lord Mayor of London

Iachimo – In Shakespeare’s Cybeline, Iachimo steals a bangle from Imogen’s bedroom in order to persuade her husband that she has been unfaithful

Moonshine – in Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, the tailor Starveling plays Moonshine to creep into the bedroom of lovers Pyramus and Thisbe

^ Crossed them – having filed her pages horizontally, she turns and writes vertically, a common practice among letter writers of the period

Ensign – lowest ranking officer in an infantry regiment

Demerara – a river in Guyana

Quadroon – a nineteenth-century term for anyone with one grandparent who was black

^ Admirable Crichton – James Crichton (1560-85), Scottish adventurer, scholar and linguist

Brevet rank – temporary or honorary rank

Some cynical Frenchman – La Rochefoucauld (1613 – 80), whose Rйflexions (1665) provides the source of the quotation

Fairy Titania – in Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Titania, Queen of the Fairies, is under a love spell and falls for Bottom the weaver, despite his having the head of an ass

^ Corsican monster locked up at Elba – Napoleon

Old Slaughterers’ – an old-established coffee house in London’s St Martin’s lane

The sacrifice of Iphigenia – Agamemnon, the heroic Greek leader in the Trojan Wars, sacrifices his daughter Iphigenia to the gods in return for a safe voyage back to Greece

^ Pipe – a cask of wine holding a measure of 105 British gallons

Commander-in-Chief – at the time, a position held by the Duke of York

Filberts – hazel nuts

Yankee privateer Molasses – During this period there was open hostility between British and American ships, with both sides suffering losses

^ Rumble – the outside rear seat of a carriage

Antiphlogistic medicines – anti-inflammation medicines

‘off the hooks’ – slang for dead

as it could be paid without a fee – the doctor was paid per visit, not per patient

rallied - teased

a frank – a letter which is franked or paid for because it bears the MP’s signature

^ Dives – Latin for ‘rich man’

Croesus – an immensely rich King of Lydia, Asia Minor, sixth century BC

Shoulder-knot aristocracy – in earlier centuries, highly aristocratic families would wear ribbons of their family colours on their shoulders

^ Line regiment – infantry

Presifflй’d – mocked, from the French persifler

Resurgam – I shall rise again (Latin)

Engoыment – infatuation (French)

Pigault le Brun – Charles Pigault le Brun (1753 – 1835), a popular French novelist whose love stories were racy and mildly radical

^ Prince Regent’s divorce – the Prince had married his wife Caroline in 1795 and had long wished for a divorce, although a bill to procure this had been abandoned in the Lords in 1820

Tendre – affectionate attachment (French)

Doter – to give a dowry to someone (French)

Йclaircissement – enlightenment or revelation (French)

Porteus’s sermons – Revd Beilby Porteus (1731 – 1808) had been Bishop of London and published many volumes of his sermons

^ Lord Eldon – The first Earl of Eldon (1751 – 1838) had eloped in 1772 to live in genteel poverty, but by 1801 was Lord Chancellor

Achilles and Ajax – Both had concubines chosen from among their captives: Achilles loved Briseis and Ajax loved Tecmessa

^ Hercules … Omphale – as penance for the murder of Iphitus, the Greek warrior-hero Hercules was sold into slavery to Omphale, the Queen of Lydia

Clippers – fast ones, winners

Dimity – strong cotton fabric, woven with stripes or checks

^ Mr George Robins – a well-known auctioneer of the period

Diogenes’s … Epicurus – Diogenes was an ascetic, who had withdrawn and renounced all worldliness, while Epicurus was associated with luxury and advocated hedonism. In effect, Thackeray suggests that anyone is liable to become bankrupt

Shampooing – kneading or pressing them to test their quality

Nankeen-jacket – a cotton jacket originally made in Nanking in China

^ Banybann tree… pagody – a banyan, or Indian fig tree; a pagoda or sacred Buddhist temple

Baby houses – doll’s houses

Polyandria polygynia – belonging to many little boys and girls, all mixed up

Cornelia’s husband … Potiphar – In the biblical account, Potiphar was an Egyptian officer whose wife Cornelia tried to seduce Joseph and then falsely accused him of attempting to rape her (Genesis 39)

^ Captain by purchase – an officer who has bought his commission

Napoleon … Cannes – Napoleon landed in Cannes on 1 March 1815 and quickly reached Paris, having gathered a large army.

Talleyrand … Londonderry – These are the representatives at the Congress of Vienna, which was interrupted in March 1815 by Napoleon’s return from St Elba. Talleyrand was the envoy for the French, Metternich for the Austrians, Prince Hardenberg for the Prussians and Lord Castlereagh (the Marquis of Londonderry) for the English

Yashmaks – the face veils typically worn by Turkish women

^ His bills were protested – a formal notification by a notary that Sedley’s money orders were being refused – like cheques that bounce

Irretrievable Gazette – Bankruptcies were all listed here

Vilipending – slandering and slighting

Bourbons – the French royal line or family

Champ de Mars – the Field of Mars, at the Military Academy in Paris, where Napoleon held a civilian and military rally to gather troops and rouse general support

^ Chasse а l’aigle – If Napoleon was the eagle, then the four allies were preparing for an eagle hunt

CB – Companion of the Order of the Bath

Alexis Soyer – One of the most famous chefs of this period, Alexis Soyer (1809 – 58) worked at the Reform Club, advised on nutrition during the Irish famine, and assisted the government with the problem of cooking in the Crimea

^ Collingwood … acorn – Vice-Admiral Lord Cuthbert Collingwood (1750 – 1810) led the navy at Trafalgar after Nelson’s death. He hoped all would follow his example of planting acorns so as to ensure plenty of oak for England’s ships

Knocker … plate – The knocker was removed, and there was no longer any need for Bowl’s plate for visiting cards, since no visitors were permitted

^ Wearers of motley – court jesters

Spunging-house – the initial prison for debtors, from which – if they paid their debt – they were released

Fronts – artificial curls at the front of the head

Dr Squills and myself – Prior to 1815 an apothecary could attend patients alone, but later the presence of a qualified doctor was required

Pharmacopoeia – a guide to medicines and their administration

^ Harpy – a monster from Greek myth with the face and body of a woman and bird’s wings and claws

‘She’ll cup up well’ – That is, Miss Crawley will leave plenty of money

the Messenger of Hymen – a marriage promoter or arranger

Esther – in the Book of Esther, Esther’s husband is both master and of dominant race, yet upholds her when she risks her life for her people

^ Russian merchant – Osborne trades in Russian furs and animal skins

Enough to purchase his majority – to buy himself a major’s commission

Wafers – discs of flour and glue which, when moistened, served to seal letters

He ought to be … shot – Sedley had invested in the volatile French market after the peace of 1814 had been celebrated. His investments collapsed when Napoleon escaped from Elba. Yet Colonel Campbell, the commissioner at Elba, was given inadequate means and support

^ Three stars to her name – designating someone who owns more than Ј6,000 in East India stock, at least Ј300,000 in today’s money

Portland Place – an elegant Regency street near Regent’s Park, the work of the famous neo-classic architect John Nash

^ Morning Post – the society and ‘snobs’ newspaper

Streeled – trailed on the ground

Parlour-boarder – a privileged pupil who lived with the principal

Tags and gimcracks – pendants and knick-knacks

The Battle of Prague – a popular piano sonata

^ Blue-Eyed Mary … Cabinet … Fleuve du Tage – The first was a popular ballad, ‘Cabinet’ was a comic opera, and ‘O Fleuve du Tage’ the beginning of a song

Hottentot – a Dutch name for members of a South African ethnic group

Tattooed – tapped or drummed with his fingers

Hummums – the Turkish baths in Covent Garden

^ Apsley House … St George’s Hospital wore red jackets still – Apsley House was the Duke of Wellington’s home. At this time both this building and the hospital were of red brick, not clad with grey stone as in subsequent years. The other features of the area – Achilles’ statue, the arch and a statue of the Duke – were erected later to commemorate Waterloo

^ Breakfast … wedding favour – a society wedding would have included food beforehand and gifts for the guests and servants

Master Omnium – the baby in a fictitious generalised family which featured in ‘The Times’ and was invented by journalist Matthew Higgins

Six-pounder – a cannon capable of firing six-pound balls of shot

^ Genteel lazzaroni – well-connected beggars or thieves of the class of Crawley and Becky (Italian)

Joinville … untimely bombards it – The Prince de Joinville hoped to improve the French navy to be on a par with the British force.

Dr Elliotson – Originally a professor of medicine, he became a mesmerist and phrenologist. Alexis was his hypnosis subject, whose experiences John Elliotson (1791 – 1868) described in his publications

Machiavellian – cunning or conniving, after Niccolo Machiavelli (1469 – 1527), the astute Italian statesman and political philosopher

^ The Annual Register, the Gentleman’s Magazine … and Hume and Smollett – typical volumes of the period for a gentleman’s study; David Hume’s History of England was continued by Tobias Smollett

Wolfe at Quebec – James Wolfe’s troops took Quebec in battle in 1759, marking the point when England captured Canada as a colony from the French. Both he and Montcalm, the French leader, were killed

^ Rout Mr Washington on Long Island – The British defeated George Washington here in 1776

Pen a poulet – write a love letter (poulet, French)

Que voulez-vous? – What do you expect? (French)

The Light Bobs – light infantry

Йcartй – a card game for two people (French)

‘Wapping Old Stairs’ – a sentimental ballad

sheriff’s-officer – Each county had a sheriff who was empowered to appoint officers to trail and apprehend felons and debtors; the sheriff also controlled the spunging houses

calipash or capilee – the most succulent parts of the turtle, the calipash being next to the upper shell, while the calipee lines the lower shell

Emperor Halixander’s sister – the allied sovereigns, Czar Alexander and his sister, the Grand Duchess of Oldenburgh, were in London in June 1814

Mr Kean perform in Shylock – the actor Edward Kean had captivated London theatre audience at this time






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